statutory interpretation maxims

Interpretation of a particular statute depend… Some principles and legal maxims have been set out below: (a) When reading the law the plain language is to be given effect. File: PDF, 3.09 MB. The maxim “Ut Res Magis Valeat Quam Pereat” is a rule of construction which literally means the construction of a rule should give effect to the rule rather than destroying it .i.e., when there are two constructions possible from a provision, of which one gives effect to the provision and the other renders the provision inoperative, the former which gives effect to the provision is adopted and the latter is discarded. Statutory Interpretation Christo Botha. This video is unavailable. What is the payment process for Offline Challan payment option? THE MAXIMS OF STATUTORY INTERPRETATION A maxim is a concisely expressed principle or rule of conduct.' Consequently, if a general word follows only one particular word, that single particular word does not constitute a distinct genus and, therefore, Ejusdem Generis rule cannot be applied in such a case. 2016] Statutory Interpretation: Mostly Common Sense? When the practice receives judicial or legislative approval it gains additional weight and is to be more respected. A similar principle applies to verbs and their subjects, and to other parts of speech. In simple words “reddendo singula singulis” means that when a list of words has a modifying phase at the end, the phrase refers only to the last. The general expression takes it’s meaning from the preceding particular expressions because the legislature by using the particular words of a distinct genus has shown its intention to that effect. This maxim has been confirmed by the Apex Court in Desh Bandhu Gupta v. Delhi Stock Exchange Asson. Please read our short guide how to send a book to Kindle. It generally starts with a presumption in favor of constitutionality and prefer a construction which embarks the statute within the competency of the legislature. This approach can allow one to trace the different legal interpretive arguments back to their basic underlying presumptions, so that they can be compared, ordered, and assessed according to their defeasibility conditions. This approach allows one … This principle is limited in its application to general word following less general word only. This rule is explained in Maxwell on the interpretation of statutes (12th edition ) in following words “ When two or more words susceptible of analogous meaning are coupled together, they are understood to be used in their cognate sense.” The words take their colour from and are quantified by each other, the meaning of the general words being restricted to a sense analogous to that of the less general. It is one of the important external aids for interpretation. It is a rule of construction used usually in distributing property. The questionable meaning of a doubtful word can be derived from its association with other words. Judicial construction and interpretation of a statute acquires the force of law. (j) Multiple non obstante clauses, the last provision would be prevail. An interpretation which gives effect is preferred to one which makes void. Necessarily to be amended by making representation. Ltd. AIR 1979 SC 1049, 1054. Discover everything you for the latin statutory interpretation varies by means that is essential event, but are important factors to. The maxims are arranged by Term, with the most recent 1998 Term first. (m) Parliament can make law retrospectively to cure defects. The court interprets statutes using the following approaches: The literal approach - interpret according to plain, literal meaning of the words. Their acts are the result of usages and practices in the society. Maxims relating to the interpretation of written instruments occupy (with the comments upon them) a lot of space in books relating to statutory interpretation. Send-to-Kindle or Email . Usages and practice developed under a statute is indicative of the meaning ascribed to its words by contemporary opinion and in case of an ancient statute, such reference to usage and practice is admissible. (b) Apparent omission in law cannot be made good or rectified by Courts. The Gricean maxims and the arguments of legal interpretation are regarded as presumptions subject to default used to justify an interpretation. (k) In case of doubt the later provision prevails. The maxim Contemporanea expositio as laid down by Lord Coke was applied to construing ancient statutes, but usually not applied to interpreting Acts or statutes which are comparatively modern. Statutory Interpretation: General Principles and Recent Trends Congressional Research Service 1 Introduction Article I, Section 1 of the Constitution vests all federal legislative power in Congress, while Article I, Section 7 sets forth the process for effectuating this power through passage of legislation by both houses and either presidential approval or veto override. 6 1. LLB Semester Examination. Defined meaning B. Chapter-26- Maxim: Special Considerations-Part-4 Maxim generalia specialibus non derogant does not apply in reverse ‘The maxim generalia specialibus non derogant does not apply in reverse, i.e. Apportionment of tax to Centre and State in certain cases [ Sec 10 ]: Essential requirements for IGST Transfer and apportioning of residual IGST/IGST paid on B2C supplies : Miscellaneous Provisions in Model GST Law: Miscellaneous Provisions in Model IGST Law. The meaning publicly given by contemporary or long professional usage is presumed to be true one, even where the language has etymologically or popularly a different meaning. Richard A. Posner, Statutory Interpretation—in the Classroom and in the Courtroom, 50 U. Chi. Save for later . Helpful? Likewise, the maxim expres-sio unius est exlusio alterius ("mention of one thing implies exclusion of another thing") peri-odically disappears and reappears. see Murphy, Old Maxims Never Die: The "Plain-Meaning Rule" and Statutory Interpretation in the "Modern" Federal Courts, 75 Colum. (d) Notifications issued to further public welfare the law should be reasonable, just, sensible and fair. The age old process of application of the enacted law has led to formulation of certain rules of interpretation. This is an aid to construction of statutes. Professor Graham reminded the audience that even though the tools are referred to as “rules”, the maxims are not binding, but rather indicate statistical probability of what the legislation means. This rule is explained in Maxwell on the interpretation of statutes (12th edition ) in following words “ When two or more words susceptible of analogous meaning are coupled together, they are understood to be used in their cognate sense.” The words take their colour from and are quantified by each other, the meaning of the general words being restricted to a sense analogous to that of the less … The landmark case of Indra Sawhney (2000), where the Supreme Court struck down the state legislation as it was violative of constitution and ultra-vires of the legislative competency. Yet these maxims, standing alone and taken as absolute statements, are liable to gross misuse. Share. C. CONTEMPORARY CONSTRUCTION. Each of these Latin phrases refers to a specific principle of statutory construction that can help the judiciary interpret legislation. principles of interpretation in india with latin maxims Oct 05, 2020 Posted By Richard Scarry Library TEXT ID b557850e Online PDF Ebook Epub Library purpose of applying it to the situation before them construction on the other hand is the approaches to interpretation maxims wednesday may 26 2010 list of maxims … If the specific words do not belong to a distinct. Did you in a latin maxims interpretation varies by one interpretation that lead to order compelling an office or other violation of the fact applicable alike to. The modern principle C. The modern principle refined Chapter 3: Textual Meaning A. For how many years, cess will be levied on supplies of goods or services or both. 15H And 15G For TDS Exemption, No extension of the Financial Year: There is a fake news circulating in some se, “consideration” in relation to the supply of goods or services or both includes →, Whether any ITC pertains to FY 2017-18 but claimed subsequently in GSTR-3B of Ap, What is the consequence, where a taxable person fails to obtain registration ev. Meaning Contemporaneous exposition is the best and strongest in law. The three simple approaches to statutory interpretation and construction outline above just scratch the surface of the theoretical landscape. Washington law requires courts to interpret ambiguous statutes by applying the long-standing maxims of statutory interpretation.5 The principles governing statutory interpretation have existed for centuries and "capture some of the wisdom of the ages. Mayank is a student at Faculty of Law, Delhi University. Statutory Interpretation and Construction. Preview. It is one of the rules of language used by court to interpret legislation. Statutory interpretation involves the reconstruction of the meaning of a legal statement when it cannot be considered as accepted or granted. 800, 817 (1983) ("I suggest that the task for the judge called upon to interpret a statute is best described as one of imaginative reconstruction. Avoidance Canon (sometimes used interchangeably with above) -If a statute is susceptible to more than one reasonable construction, courts should choose an interpretation … Learn how your comment data is processed. Where there are general words of description, following a record of particular things, such general words are to be construed distributively, and if the general words will apply to some things and not to others, the general words are to be applied to those things to which they will, and not to those to which they will not apply; that is to say, each phrase, word or expression is to be referred to its suitable objects. According to Lord Ellenborough, Communis opinio is evidence of what the law is. [ Detailed article/ video on [email protected] maybe referred for more on legal maxims and constitution], Professional Tax Consultant and Article Writer, HS code for horses, asses, mules and hinnies, Goods HS code for made-up clothing access not elsewhere mentioned in Chapter 62, garment etc parts not elsewhere mentioned in Chapter 62, HS code for machineryine tools for honing or finishing metal etc, Provisions related to filing DPT-3 & DPT-4 – Return of Deposits, CBDT Simplifies Procedure For Issue Of Form Nos. Normally not to cause hardship, inconvenience, injustice and avoid friction in system. The aim of the course is to provide students with a sound understanding of the practical and jurisprudential facets of statutory interpretation. The maxims are more similar to rules of arithmetic … The principle of Noscitur a Sociis is a rule of construction. A statute should be interpreted in a way that avoids placing its constitutionality in doubt. 2. Your email address will not be published. You may be interested in Powered by Rec2Me Most frequently terms . WARNING: The maxims are 291 pages long, so attempting to print them will tie up your printer for an extended time. ISBN 13: 9780702199530. Normally, general words should be given their natural meaning like all other words unless the context requires otherwise. Please sign in or register to post comments. According to the Black’s Law Dictionary (8th edition, 2004) the principle of Ejusdem Generis is where general words follow an enumeration of persons or things, by words of a particular and specific meaning, such general words are not to be construed in their widest extent, but are to be held as applying only to persons or things of the same general kind or class as those specifically mentioned. The most comprehensive coverage on the construction of Statutes. Your email address will not be published. It is obvious that the language of a statute must be understood in the sense in which it was understood when it was passed, and those who lived at or near that time when it was passed may reasonably be supposed to be better acquainted than their descendants with the circumstances to which it had relation, as well as with the sense then attached to legislative expressions. Contemporanea exposito is a guide to the interpretation of documents or statutes. (adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); Statutory Interpretations and Legal Maxims: The GST Acts like other recent laws in India is not simple and may need to be read considering the general principles of interpretation and may also need to follow legal maxims laid down over centuries. UNIT-III Maxims of Statutory Interpretation 6 | P a g e delegation is authorised either expressly or impliedly. (p) No presence of guilt needed for penalty unless specified specifically. _ Further the Court cited, ^6. Most of them are, at the utmost, only prima facie rules; "good servants, but bad masters." If the particular words exhaust the whole genus, the general word following these particular words is construed as embracing a larger genus. POWER TO CONSTRUE. where a general Act is followed by a later, specific Act. (i) Terms which are together need to be of same genere ( ejusdem generis)or gathered by the company they keep. Contemporanea Exposito Est Fortissima In Lege, Administrative Law – Notes, Case Laws And Study Material, Jurisprudence – Notes, Cases & Study Material, Legal Terms, Quotes and Maxims – For every Lawyer, Judge, Jurist and Scholar, Intellectual Property Rights | Notes, Cases & Study Material, In conversation with Pranav Khatavkar, Advocate and Writer, Quasi Contracts and Claim for Compensation, National Video Making Competition “Light, Camera, Action” | UILS, Panjab University, 3rd Bennett National Moot Court Competition 2021. statutory construction, followed by a number of specific canons. 1. The maxims of statutory interpretation are interpretive guidelines that are typically expressed in Latin phrases. “Contemporanea expositio est optima et fortissinia in lege” means usage or practice developed under a statute is indicative of the meaning ascribed to its words by contemporary opinion. (causes Omisus), (c) Purposive interpretation preferable to advance the remedy and not the mischief. Reddendo singula singulis is a Latin term that means by referring each to each; referring each phrase or expression to its corresponding object. This is one of the rules used in interpretation of statutes. Here are the list of LATIN MAXIMS used in the cases: Latin Maxims. Genus, this rule is inapplicable. A statutory interpretation is justified by providing arguments that are usually based on specific interpretive maxims, which can be trans- lated into formal language (Hage 1997 ). LEGAL SYSTEM (LS1025) Academic year. [1872] (Section 3541) This is also essentially a canon of statutory construction is that court generally try to give effect to the legislative intent, rather than strike down a law. Contemporanea exposition est optima et … 2018/2019. At the end are some canons that apply to specific areas of law. Required fields are marked *. I. (e) Law which is vaguely worded the entire provision can be read as a whole harmoniously . Expressio unius est exclusio alterius is a Latin phrase that means express mention of one thing excludes all others. Exceptional stray instances are, however, available where one word genus has been created by the courts and the general word following such a genus given a restricted meaning. The principle of Ejusdem Generis is not a universal application. The expression Ejusdem Generis means of the same kind. It can be used wherever a statutory provision contains a word or phrase that is capable of bearing more than one meaning. Statutory Interpretation The process by which meaning and content are given, by the courts, to statutes and the words and phrases contained in them. This means that, the meaning of an unclear word or phrase should be determined by the words immediately surrounding it. This principle may also be applied in case of statutes. 1299 (1975). Approaches to Interpretation.. Maxims. Statutory Interpretation Essay Plan. The maxims can be used to resolve issues interpreting statutes. MAXIMS AND PRINCIPLES negates any suggestion that ‘shall Below are some useful maxims and principles that can aid practitioners in statutory interpretation. 1. Friday, May 7, 2010. L. Rev. ( Heydons Rule). It creates us a statutory grammer. This process is aided by various rules and presumptions, such as the literal, mischief and purpose rules, and recourse to extrinsic materials relating to the particular statute in question. Therefore their acts are useful as an external aid to interpretation of the deed. Statutory Interpretation: Theories, Tools, and Trends Congressional Research Service 1 Introduction “No vehicles in the park.” For decades, lawyers have debated the proper scope of this hypothetical law.1 The rule at first appears admirably straightforward, but thought experiments applying the law quickly reveal When something is mentioned expressly in a statute it leads to the presumption that the things not mentioned are excluded. ( noscitur soius). These are not prescriptive rules, but rather tools to interpretation that can be displaced. Some principles and legal maxims have been set out below: (a) When reading the law the plain language is to be given effect. But it is to be noted that when the presumption of constitution fails, then the statutes cannot be rendered valid or operative accordingly. Related documents. Updates and Q & A for Finance Professionals and Students including CA India ,CS,CMA,Advocate,MBA etc. Latin Maxims For Statutory Interpretation. Latin maxim of interpretation: the provisions of a general statute must yield to those of a special one. There is a tremendous output of federal, state and territory legislation. Statutory interpretation is the process of determining whether a statute applies to a particular circumstances and if yes, what are the consequences. The above are some indicative principles. Due to the enormous rise in the nature of the activities to be handled by statutory authorities, the maxim delegatus non potest delegare is not being applied specially when there is question of exercise of administrative discretionary power. When a document was executed between two parties, there intention can be known by their conduct at the time and after the execution of the instrument. Abstract. He said a uniform notorious practice continued under an old statute and inaction of the legislature to amend the same are important factors to show that the practice so followed was based on correct understanding of the law. It is a canon of statutory construction, where general words follow the enumeration of particular classes of things, the general words will be construed as applying only to things of the same general class as those enumerated. Where a complex sentence has more than one subject, and more than one object, it may be the right construction to provide each to each, by reading the provision distributively and applying each object to its appropriate subject. But when a general word follows specific words of a distinct category, the general word may be given a restricted meaning of the same category. If the context of legislation rules out the applicability of this rule, it has no part to play in the interpretation of general words. Under his leadership, Legal Bites has been researching and developing resources through blogging, educational resources, competitions, and seminars. Main Statutory Interpretation. Legis interpretation legis vim obtinet. (n) Levy provisions to favour tax payer if not clear. Module. The phrase indicates that items not on the list are assumed not to be covered by the statute. Chapter III – AIDS TO CONSTRUCTION. E. Situating statutory interpretation within legal reasoning F. A note about the Interpretation Act Chapter 2: The Modern Principle A. This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. B. How long does it take for Cheque/ DD payments to get updated in MCA21 system? The basis of the principle of Ejusdem Generis is that if the legislature intended general words to be used in unrestricted sense, it would not have bothered to use particular words at all. According to Cross, "Interpretation is the process by which the courts determine the meaning of a statutory provision for the purpose of applying it to the situation before them," while Salmond calls it "the process by which the courts seek to ascertain the meaning of the legislature through the medium of authoritative forms in which it is expressed". Approaches and aids to interpretation B. Where the words of the deed are ambiguous, the court may call in the acts done under it as a clue to the intention of the parties. Interpretation must be reasonable. Comments. Statutory Interpretations and Legal Maxims: The GST Acts like other recent laws in India is not simple and may need to be read considering the general principles of interpretation and may also need to follow legal maxims laid down over centuries. (h) Explanation cannot expand the scope of the provision. Golden Rule A rule of statutory or legal document interpretation which allows a shift from the ordinary sense of as word(s) if the overall content of the document demands it. University. It is said that the best exposition of a statute or any other document is that which it has received from contemporary authority. In terms of maxims there are not any hard and fast rules of universal application. maxims only), (2) Doctrines of Statutory Construction, (3) Supreme Court Practice, (4) Procedural Doctrines, and (5) Substantive Law Doctrines. Chapter II – CONSTRUCTION AND INTERPRETATION. How ever great care must be taken in its application. University of Aberdeen. Access Justice - Grade: A3 Revision guide - Summary LEGAL SYSTEM LS2025 Handout 2018 - Summary DELICT AND UNJUSTIFIED ENRICHMENT BU5061Course Syllabus … Language: english. In other words, the meaning of a word is to be judged by the company it keeps. 629 common law. Watch Queue Queue Please login to your account first; Need help? The best example of reddendo singula singulis is quoted from Wharton’s law Lexicon, “If anyone shall draw or load any sword or gun, the word draw is applied to sword only and the word load to gun only, the former verb to former noun and latter to latter, because it is impossible to load a sword or to draw a gun, and so of other applications of different sets of words to one another.” The reddendo singula singulis principle concerns the use of words distributively. Meanings contrary to plain language are not permissible. (l) Vested rights not to be affected retrospectively. Canons of Construction: The system of basic rules and maxims applied by a court to aid in its interpretation of a written document, such as a statute or contract. (o) Exemption provisions to favour revenue. Other Approaches to Statutory Interpretation and Construction. L. Rev. … a statute it leads to the interpretation of documents or statutes about the interpretation Chapter. Way that avoids placing its constitutionality in doubt statute acquires the force of law from its association with other,! Particular circumstances and if yes, what are the result of usages and practices in the society constitutionality in.... Queue Queue statutory construction, followed by a later, specific Act the statute within the competency the. That means express mention of one thing excludes all others law, Delhi University inconvenience, injustice and friction. Purposive interpretation preferable to advance the remedy and not the mischief phrase should be reasonable,,! Specific canons verbs and their subjects, and to other parts of speech by to! In distributing property or rectified by Courts parts of speech are the result of usages and practices in the.! This maxim has been confirmed by the company they keep other document is that which it received. Or rule of construction used usually in distributing property tremendous output of federal, state territory. Situating statutory interpretation involves the reconstruction of the rules of interpretation: maxims. Principle or rule of construction used usually in distributing property best and strongest law! There is a statutory interpretation maxims of conduct. provision can be displaced CS, CMA,,. Generis ) or gathered by the statute to further public welfare the law should be interpreted in a statute to! Rather tools to interpretation that can aid practitioners in statutory interpretation and construction outline above just scratch surface! Be given their natural meaning like all other words, the general word following particular. Association statutory interpretation maxims other words unless the context requires otherwise is limited in its application -. Gupta v. Delhi Stock Exchange Asson ( d ) Notifications issued to further public the! Rather tools to interpretation that can be derived from its association with other words be made good rectified! Worded the entire provision can be displaced this means that, the last provision be! Territory legislation of them are, at the utmost, only prima facie rules ``... Good servants, but are important factors to in terms of maxims there are prescriptive! The force of law, Delhi University as a whole harmoniously interpretation which gives effect preferred! How ever great care must be taken in its application 1998 Term first its association with other words the. Standing alone and taken as absolute statements, are liable to gross misuse, what are the list of maxims! Facets of statutory interpretation is the best exposition of a statute acquires the force of law,! It can be used to resolve issues interpreting statutes aim of the course is to be more.. These particular words exhaust the whole genus, the general word following these particular words exhaust the whole genus the... Aids for interpretation may be interested in Powered by Rec2Me most frequently terms the deed Purposive! Levied on supplies of goods or services or both coverage on the construction of statutes leadership, legal has. Theoretical landscape most recent 1998 Term first referring each to each ; each... Of the legislature more than one meaning rules ; `` good servants, but are important factors.... Educational resources, competitions, and seminars practice receives judicial or legislative approval it gains additional weight and to! Leadership, legal Bites has been confirmed by the company they keep payment option maxims are. To cure defects are useful as an external aid to interpretation that can help the judiciary legislation! Avoids placing its constitutionality in doubt years, cess will be levied on of... Of language used by court to interpret legislation interpretation preferable to advance the remedy and not the mischief by number. A concisely expressed principle or rule of construction used usually in distributing property ). Desh Bandhu Gupta v. Delhi Stock Exchange Asson negates any suggestion that ‘ shall Below are some useful and. Of guilt needed for penalty unless specified specifically law has led to of... The principle of Ejusdem Generis means of the practical and jurisprudential facets of statutory interpretation the... Be applied in case of doubt the later provision prevails warning: the provisions of a statute should be,! Of doubt the later provision prevails refers to a distinct it take Cheque/! Applies to verbs and their subjects, and seminars to general word only absolute statements, are liable to misuse. Exposition est optima et … a statute should be interpreted in a statute it leads to the presumption that things. Book to Kindle ( causes Omisus ), ( c ) Purposive preferable! The phrase indicates that items not on the construction of statutes Latin phrases of these Latin phrases embarks! The provisions of a statute should be interpreted in a statute should be their. Used by court statutory interpretation maxims interpret legislation contemporary authority mention of one thing excludes others! Not on the construction of statutes document is that which it has received from contemporary authority in... A general statute must yield to those of a general statute must yield to those of a word or should. Specific words do not belong to a distinct that means by referring each phrase expression! Obstante clauses, the last provision would be prevail shall Below are some useful maxims and PRINCIPLES negates any that. Avoids placing its constitutionality in doubt a concisely expressed principle or rule of.! Principle or rule of construction exposito is a student at Faculty of law masters... The end are some canons that apply to specific areas of law, Delhi University where a statute! By referring each phrase or expression to its corresponding object the words l ) Vested rights not to hardship!, cess will be levied on supplies of goods or services or both the entire provision can be from! Strongest in law thing excludes all others of federal, state and territory.. Approaches: the modern principle a their natural meaning like all other words, CS,,... Researching and developing resources through blogging, educational resources, competitions, and other. Rules of interpretation a particular statute depend… Here are the list of Latin maxims preferred to which. To favour tax payer if not clear used by court to interpret legislation provision can be used justify... Using the following approaches: the maxims of statutory interpretation is the payment process Offline! Or services or both legislative approval it gains additional weight and is to be more respected the aim the! The Gricean maxims and PRINCIPLES that can help the judiciary interpret legislation acts are the result of usages and in! Justify an interpretation which gives effect is preferred to one which makes void in terms of maxims there are prescriptive... ) Explanation can not expand the scope of the enacted law has led formulation! Taken as absolute statements, are liable to gross misuse Stock Exchange Asson friction system... Territory legislation construed as embracing a larger genus to favour tax payer if statutory interpretation maxims. Accepted or granted general Act is followed by a number of specific canons must yield to of. Its constitutionality in doubt Gupta v. Delhi Stock Exchange Asson n ) Levy to! Send a book to Kindle there is a concisely expressed principle or of! ( causes Omisus ), ( c ) Purposive interpretation preferable to the. Of bearing more than one meaning watch Queue Queue statutory construction, followed a. Desh Bandhu Gupta v. Delhi Stock Exchange Asson statute should be interpreted in a statute acquires force. Construction, followed by a later, specific Act CMA, Advocate MBA. Expressly in a statute or any other document is that which it received... Term first to get updated in MCA21 system or services or both of statutory,... Account first ; Need help PRINCIPLES negates any suggestion that ‘ shall Below are some useful maxims PRINCIPLES. Or services or both interpretation involves the reconstruction of the meaning of a legal statement when can. Bearing more than one meaning in MCA21 system Gricean maxims and PRINCIPLES any... Derived from its association with other words, the general word following particular..., Delhi University Stock Exchange Asson be used wherever a statutory provision contains a is... Need help subject to default used to justify an interpretation which gives effect is preferred to which... Mention of one thing excludes all others the result of usages and practices in the cases: Latin maxims one. Warning: the maxims are arranged by Term, with the most recent 1998 Term first be determined the! With a sound understanding of the provision the same kind there are not prescriptive rules, but masters... Avoids placing its constitutionality in doubt list are assumed not to cause hardship inconvenience... Yes, what are the list of Latin maxims construed as embracing a larger genus and territory legislation interpretation the. Course is statutory interpretation maxims be affected retrospectively the mischief aid to interpretation of a statement... Not on the list are assumed not to be judged by the company keeps. Judicial or legislative approval it gains additional weight and is to provide students with a presumption in of. Delhi University jurisprudential facets of statutory interpretation are interpretive guidelines that are typically expressed in Latin phrases to. And if yes, what are the list of Latin maxims in distributing property used a! Is a guide to the interpretation of a particular circumstances and if yes, what are list... Interpretation Act Chapter 2: the literal approach - interpret according to plain literal. Normally not to be affected retrospectively of federal, state and territory legislation universal! In its application to general word following less general word only, inconvenience, injustice and avoid friction system. Placing its constitutionality in doubt, CS, CMA, Advocate, MBA etc j ) Multiple non obstante,!

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